Michigan

If Election Today more aggressive + 2016 Polling Error assumes same polling errors

Likely Biden

Win Probability

Biden
Trump
Biden
95.5%
Polls: 50.4% +7.4%
Trump
4.5%
Polls: 43%
95.5%
4.5%



Swing

 
+7.6%
From 2016 Results
+4.3%
From 2016 Polls
 



Testing

Standard Deviation: 2.047 Testing Range: +/- 4.78%




Tipping Point



5.9%
of the time





Polls

 
50.4%
Biden (+7.4%)
43%
Trump
 

Date Pollster Rating Voters Sample Size Republican Democrat Diff Diff (Adj) Weight
10/28/20 10/20-10/25 ABC News/The Washington Post A+ LV 789 Trump
44
Biden
51
+7% +6.4% 1.12
10/28/20 10/20-10/25 ABC News/The Washington Post A+ RV 902 Trump
44
Biden
49
+5% +4.4% -
10/27/20 10/23-10/25 Glengariff Group B/C LV 600 Trump
41.6
Biden
49.3
+7.7% +7.3% 0.98
10/27/20 10/20-10/26 Ipsos B- LV 652 Trump
43
Biden
53
+10% +9.6% 0.37
10/27/20 10/20-10/26 Ipsos B- LV 652 Trump
43
Biden
52
+9% +8.6% 0.37
10/26/20 9/28-10/25 SurveyMonkey D- LV 7,094 Trump
45
Biden
53
+8% +3% -
10/26/20 9/28-10/25 SurveyMonkey D- RV 7,094 Trump
44
Biden
53
+9% +4% -
10/26/20 10/13-10/21 YouGov B RV 745 Trump
42
Biden
51
+9% +8.6% -
10/26/20 10/13-10/21 YouGov B LV 681 Trump
42
Biden
52
+10% +9.6% 0.79
10/25/20 9/26-10/24 SurveyMonkey D- LV 6,965 Trump
45
Biden
53
+8% +3% -
10/25/20 9/26-10/24 SurveyMonkey D- RV 6,965 Trump
44
Biden
53
+9% +4% -
10/25/20 10/24-10/24 Gravis Marketing C LV 679 Trump
42
Biden
55
+13% +12% 0.92
10/24/20 9/25-10/23 SurveyMonkey D- LV 6,891 Trump
44
Biden
53
+9% +4% -
10/24/20 9/25-10/23 SurveyMonkey D- RV 6,891 Trump
43
Biden
53
+10% +5% -
10/23/20 9/25-10/22 SurveyMonkey D- LV 6,767 Trump
44
Biden
53
+9% +4% -
10/23/20 9/25-10/22 SurveyMonkey D- RV 6,767 Trump
43
Biden
53
+10% +5% -
10/23/20 10/3-10/6 Opinion Insight A/B LV 800 Trump
42
Biden
51
+9% +9.6% 0.42
10/23/20 8/30-9/2 Opinion Insight A/B LV 800 Trump
44
Biden
50
+6% +6.6% -
10/23/20 10/11-10/18 Zia Poll C/D LV 2,851 Trump
49
Biden
45
+4% +3.4% 0.48
10/23/20 10/15-10/19 EPIC-MRA B+ LV 600 Trump
39
Biden
48
+9% +9.2% 0.8
10/22/20 9/24-10/21 SurveyMonkey D- LV 6,607 Trump
44
Biden
53
+9% +4% -
10/22/20 9/24-10/21 SurveyMonkey D- RV 6,607 Trump
44
Biden
53
+9% +4% -
10/22/20 10/21-10/22 Public Policy Polling B V 804 Trump
43
Biden
50
+7% +6.6% 0.91
10/22/20 10/15-10/18 Trafalgar Group C- LV 1,034 Trump
46.7
Biden
44.9
+1.8% +0.8% 0.6
10/22/20 10/11-10/20 Morning Consult B/C LV 1,717 Trump
44
Biden
52
+8% +7.8% 0.7
10/21/20 10/17-10/20 Fox News A- RV 1,104 Trump
40
Biden
51
+11% +9.6% -
10/21/20 10/17-10/20 Fox News A- LV 1,032 Trump
40
Biden
52
+12% +10.6% 0.93
10/21/20 10/15-10/18 Data for Progress B- LV 830 Trump
45
Biden
50
+5% +5% 0.73
10/21/20 9/23-10/20 SurveyMonkey D- LV 6,519 Trump
45
Biden
53
+8% +3% -
10/21/20 9/23-10/20 SurveyMonkey D- RV 6,519 Trump
44
Biden
53
+9% +4% -
10/20/20 10/14-10/20 Ipsos B- LV 686 Trump
44
Biden
52
+8% +7.6% 0.26
10/20/20 10/16-10/19 Change Research C- LV 718 Trump
44
Biden
51
+7% +5.8% 0.61
10/20/20 9/22-10/19 SurveyMonkey D- LV 6,222 Trump
45
Biden
53
+8% +3% -
10/20/20 9/22-10/19 SurveyMonkey D- RV 6,222 Trump
44
Biden
53
+9% +4% -
10/20/20 10/14-10/20 Ipsos B- LV 686 Trump
44
Biden
51
+7% +6.6% 0.26
10/19/20 9/20-10/18 SurveyMonkey D- LV 6,026 Trump
45
Biden
53
+8% +3% -
10/19/20 9/20-10/18 SurveyMonkey D- RV 6,026 Trump
44
Biden
53
+9% +4% -
10/19/20 10/18-10/18 Mitchell Research & Communications C- LV 900 Trump
41
Biden
51
+10% +9.2% 0.67
10/18/20 9/19-10/17 SurveyMonkey D- LV 5,930 Trump
44
Biden
53
+9% +4% -
10/18/20 9/19-10/17 SurveyMonkey D- RV 5,930 Trump
44
Biden
53
+9% +4% -
10/17/20 9/19-10/16 SurveyMonkey D- LV 5,794 Trump
44
Biden
53
+9% +4% -
10/17/20 9/19-10/16 SurveyMonkey D- RV 5,794 Trump
44
Biden
53
+9% +4% -
10/16/20 9/18-10/15 SurveyMonkey D- LV 5,448 Trump
45
Biden
53
+8% +3% -
10/16/20 9/18-10/15 SurveyMonkey D- RV 5,448 Trump
44
Biden
52
+8% +3% -
10/16/20 10/12-10/15 HarrisX C LV 1,289 Trump
43
Biden
54
+11% +12.4% 0.54
10/16/20 10/11-10/14 Trafalgar Group C- LV 1,025 Trump
46.5
Biden
45.9
+0.6% +0.4% 0.43
10/15/20 9/17-10/14 SurveyMonkey D- LV 5,093 Trump
45
Biden
52
+7% +2% -
10/15/20 9/17-10/14 SurveyMonkey D- RV 5,093 Trump
45
Biden
52
+7% +2% -
10/15/20 10/8-10/11 Civiqs B/C LV 543 Trump
43
Biden
52
+9% +9% 0.44
10/15/20 10/8-10/13 RMG Research B/C LV 800 Trump
42
Biden
48
+6% +6% 0.49
10/14/20 9/16-10/13 SurveyMonkey D- LV 4,848 Trump
46
Biden
52
+6% +1% -
10/14/20 9/16-10/13 SurveyMonkey D- RV 4,848 Trump
45
Biden
52
+7% +2% -
10/14/20 10/8-10/12 EPIC-MRA B+ LV 600 Trump
39
Biden
48
+9% +9.2% 0.57
10/13/20 9/15-10/12 SurveyMonkey D- LV 4,656 Trump
46
Biden
51
+5% +0% -
10/13/20 9/15-10/12 SurveyMonkey D- RV 4,656 Trump
45
Biden
51
+6% +1% -
10/13/20 10/7-10/13 Ipsos B- LV 620 Trump
44
Biden
51
+7% +6.6% 0.14
10/13/20 10/7-10/13 Ipsos B- LV 620 Trump
43
Biden
51
+8% +7.6% 0.14
10/13/20 10/2-10/11 Morning Consult B/C LV 1,710 Trump
44
Biden
51
+7% +6.8% 0.39
10/12/20 10/6-10/11 Siena College/The New York Times Upshot A+ LV 614 Trump
40
Biden
48
+8% +8.4% 0.65
10/11/20 10/6-10/9 YouGov B LV 1,190 Trump
46
Biden
52
+6% +5.6% 0.47
10/11/20 9/30-10/8 Baldwin Wallace University (Great Lakes Poll) C/D LV 1,134 Trump
43.2
Biden
50.2
+7% +6.2% 0.15
10/9/20 10/4-10/6 Redfield & Wilton Strategies LV 700 Trump
42
Biden
50
+8% +8% -
10/8/20 10/6-10/7 Emerson College A- LV 716 Trump
43.4
Biden
54.2
+10.8% +10.4% 0.52
10/6/20 9/29-10/6 Ipsos B- LV 709 Trump
43
Biden
51
+8% +7.6% 0.29
10/6/20 10/2-10/4 Change Research C- LV 676 Trump
43
Biden
51
+8% +6.8% 0.17
10/5/20 9/30-10/3 Glengariff Group B/C LV 600 Trump
39.2
Biden
48
+8.8% +8.4% 0.24
10/3/20 6/8-6/30 SurveyMonkey D- RV 1,238 Trump
43.9
Biden
52.4
+8.5% +3.5% -
10/3/20 6/8-6/30 SurveyMonkey D- LV 1,238 Trump
45.9
Biden
51
+5.2% +0.1% -
10/3/20 7/1-7/31 SurveyMonkey D- RV 3,083 Trump
47
Biden
50.4
+3.5% +1.5% -
10/3/20 7/1-7/31 SurveyMonkey D- LV 3,083 Trump
48.3
Biden
49.5
+1.2% +3.8% -
10/3/20 8/1-8/31 SurveyMonkey D- RV 2,962 Trump
47.1
Biden
49.5
+2.4% +2.6% -
10/3/20 8/1-8/31 SurveyMonkey D- LV 2,962 Trump
48
Biden
49
+1% +4% -
10/2/20 9/1-9/30 SurveyMonkey D- RV 3,297 Trump
43.6
Biden
53.1
+9.5% +4.5% -
10/2/20 9/1-9/30 SurveyMonkey D- LV 3,297 Trump
44.4
Biden
52.7
+8.3% +3.3% -
10/2/20 9/30-10/1 Public Policy Polling B V 746 Trump
44
Biden
50
+6% +5.6% 0.33
10/2/20 9/23-9/26 Redfield & Wilton Strategies LV 785 Trump
42
Biden
51
+9% +9% -
9/30/20 9/17-9/23 ALG Research B/C LV 800 Trump
44
Biden
52
+8% +6.4% 0.07
9/30/20 9/26-9/28 Trafalgar Group C- LV 1,042 Trump
47.1
Biden
48.7
+1.6% +2.6% 0.06
9/27/20 9/19-9/23 Marist College A+ LV 799 Trump
44
Biden
52
+8% +8.4% 0.29
9/27/20 9/19-9/23 Marist College A+ RV 1,082 Trump
43
Biden
52
+9% +9.4% -
9/25/20 9/17-9/19 Hart Research Associates B/C LV 400 Trump
45
Biden
50
+5% +3.6% -
9/24/20 9/20-9/22 Trafalgar Group C- LV 1,015 Trump
46.7
Biden
46
+0.7% +0.3% -
9/24/20 9/14-9/19 Data for Progress B- LV 455 Trump
44
Biden
50
+6% +6% -
9/24/20 9/14-9/19 Data for Progress B- LV 455 Trump
42
Biden
48
+6% +6% -
9/24/20 9/10-9/21 YouGov B LV 641 Trump
45
Biden
51
+6% +5.6% -
9/24/20 9/10-9/21 YouGov B RV 737 Trump
42
Biden
50
+8% +7.6% -
9/23/20 9/8-9/22 Baldwin Wallace University (Great Lakes Poll) C/D LV 1,001 Trump
41.9
Biden
49.9
+8% +7.2% -
9/23/20 9/18-9/20 Change Research C- LV 568 Trump
43
Biden
51
+8% +6.8% -
9/22/20 9/11-9/16 Ipsos B- LV 637 Trump
44
Biden
49
+5% +4.6% -
9/22/20 9/14-9/19 Marketing Resource Group (MRG) B/C LV 600 Trump
41
Biden
46
+5% +4.6% -
9/18/20 9/12-9/14 Redfield & Wilton Strategies LV 930 Trump
39
Biden
49
+10% +10% -
9/18/20 9/11-9/15 Civiqs B/C RV 517 Trump
42
Biden
53
+11% +11% -
9/18/20 9/10-9/15 EPIC-MRA B+ LV 600 Trump
40
Biden
48
+8% +8.2% -
9/10/20 9/2-9/3 Rasmussen Reports/Pulse Opinion Research C+ LV 1,000 Trump
44.3
Biden
52.9
+8.6% +10.2% -
9/10/20 8/28-9/8 Benenson Strategy Group/GS Strategy Group LV 1,600 Trump
43
Biden
50
+7% +7% -
9/9/20 8/29-9/7 Morning Consult B/C LV 1,455 Trump
42
Biden
52
+10% +9.8% -
9/9/20 9/4-9/6 Change Research C- LV 876 Trump
43
Biden
49
+6% +4.8% -
9/8/20 9/1-9/3 Glengariff Group B/C LV 600 Trump
42.3
Biden
47
+4.7% +4.3% -
9/8/20 8/30-9/3 Redfield & Wilton Strategies LV 967 Trump
40
Biden
51
+11% +11% -
9/4/20 8/11-8/15 Hodas & Associates LV 600 Trump
40.9
Biden
52.3
+11.3% +11.3% -
9/1/20 8/28-8/29 Public Policy Polling B V 897 Trump
44
Biden
48
+4% +3.6% -
9/1/20 8/21-8/30 Morning Consult B/C LV 1,424 Trump
42
Biden
52
+10% +9.8% -
9/1/20 8/7-8/16 Morning Consult B/C LV 1,212 Trump
44
Biden
50
+6% +5.8% -
8/28/20 8/14-8/23 Trafalgar Group C- LV 1,048 Trump
46.6
Biden
45.2
+1.4% +0.4% -
8/26/20 8/21-8/23 Change Research C- LV 809 Trump
44
Biden
50
+6% +4.8% -
8/21/20 8/16-8/18 Redfield & Wilton Strategies LV 812 Trump
38
Biden
50
+12% +12% -
8/21/20 8/13-8/17 Civiqs B/C RV 631 Trump
46
Biden
49
+3% +3% -
8/18/20 7/30-8/4 GQR Research B LV 500 Trump
43
Biden
52
+9% +6.8% -
8/12/20 8/7-8/9 Change Research C- LV 413 Trump
43
Biden
48
+5% +3.8% -
8/10/20 7/27-8/6 YouGov B RV 761 Trump
43
Biden
47
+4% +3.6% -
8/7/20 7/25-7/30 EPIC-MRA B+ LV 600 Trump
40
Biden
51
+11% +11.2% -
8/6/20 7/30-7/31 David Binder Research B/C LV 200 Trump
41
Biden
51
+10% +10% -
8/5/20 7/13-7/16 Hodas & Associates LV 600 Trump
40.5
Biden
52.5
+12% +12% -
8/3/20 7/28-7/29 Public Policy Polling B V 876 Trump
43
Biden
49
+6% +5.6% -
7/30/20 7/19-7/24 Redfield & Wilton Strategies LV 811 Trump
37
Biden
49
+12% +12% -
7/29/20 6/11-6/16 TargetPoint B/C A 1,000 Trump
33
Biden
49
+16% +16% -
7/29/20 7/24-7/26 Change Research C- LV 413 Trump
42
Biden
46
+4% +2.8% -
7/28/20 5/17-5/26 Morning Consult B/C LV 1,325 Trump
42
Biden
50
+8% +7.8% -
7/28/20 7/17-7/26 Morning Consult B/C LV 1,320 Trump
42
Biden
52
+10% +9.8% -
7/26/20 7/21-7/24 YouGov B LV 1,156 Trump
42
Biden
48
+6% +5.6% -
7/26/20 7/18-7/24 CNN/SSRS B/C RV 927 Trump
40
Biden
52
+12% +10.8% -
7/24/20 7/22-7/22 Gravis Marketing C LV 754 Trump
42
Biden
51
+9% +8% -
7/23/20 7/18-7/20 Fox News A- RV 756 Trump
40
Biden
49
+9% +7.6% -
7/22/20 7/11-7/16 Spry Strategies B/C LV 700 Trump
49.6
Biden
45.4
+4.2% +3.8% -
7/18/20 7/9-7/10 Public Policy Polling B V 1,041 Trump
44
Biden
51
+7% +6.6% -
7/15/20 7/10-7/12 Change Research C- LV 824 Trump
42
Biden
48
+6% +4.8% -
7/1/20 6/26-6/27 Public Policy Polling B V 1,237 Trump
44
Biden
50
+6% +5.6% -
7/1/20 6/26-6/28 Change Research C- LV 699 Trump
43
Biden
48
+5% +3.8% -
6/25/20 6/14-6/16 Redfield & Wilton Strategies LV 826 Trump
36
Biden
47
+11% +11% -
6/25/20 6/17-6/20 Hodas & Associates LV 600 Trump
37.5
Biden
55.5
+18% +18% -
6/25/20 6/8-6/17 Siena College/The New York Times Upshot A+ RV 610 Trump
36
Biden
47
+11% +11.4% -
6/22/20 6/16-6/18 Trafalgar Group C- LV 1,101 Trump
45.3
Biden
46.2
+0.9% +1.9% -
6/17/20 6/12-6/14 Change Research C- LV 353 Trump
45
Biden
47
+2% +0.8% -
6/16/20 6/9-6/12 TIPP A/B LV 859 Trump
38
Biden
51
+13% +13.8% -
6/16/20 6/9-6/12 TIPP A/B RV 907 Trump
37
Biden
50
+13% +13.8% -
6/16/20 5/31-6/4 EPIC-MRA B+ LV 600 Trump
39
Biden
55
+16% +16.2% -
6/9/20 5/31-6/7 Kiaer Research LV 543 Trump
35
Biden
50
+15% +15% -
6/7/20 5/30-6/3 EPIC-MRA B+ LV 600 Trump
41
Biden
53
+12% +12.2% -
6/3/20 5/29-5/31 Change Research C- LV 620 Trump
46
Biden
48
+2% +0.8% -
6/1/20 5/29-5/30 Public Policy Polling B V 1,582 Trump
44
Biden
50
+6% +5.6% -
5/21/20 5/10-5/14 Redfield & Wilton Strategies LV 970 Trump
39
Biden
47
+8% +8% -
5/21/20 5/18-5/19 Public Policy Polling B V 1,234 Trump
45
Biden
51
+6% +5.6% -
5/21/20 5/11-5/17 Change Research C- LV 3,070 Trump
44.2
Biden
46.7
+2.5% +1.3% -
5/21/20 5/11-5/17 Change Research C- LV 3,070 Trump
46
Biden
49
+3% +1.8% -
5/21/20 5/1-5/5 Hodas & Associates LV 600 Trump
42.2
Biden
51.8
+9.7% +9.7% -
4/30/20 4/28-4/29 Public Policy Polling B V 1,270 Trump
42
Biden
50
+8% +7.6% -
4/24/20 4/9-4/11 Hodas & Associates LV 600 Trump
43.3
Biden
49.7
+6.3% +6.3% -
4/23/20 4/20-4/21 Public Policy Polling B V 1,277 Trump
44
Biden
51
+7% +6.6% -
4/23/20 4/15-4/20 Ipsos B- A 642 Trump
36
Biden
45
+9% +8.6% -
4/22/20 4/15-4/20 Ipsos B- RV 612 Trump
38
Biden
46
+8% +7.6% -
4/22/20 4/18-4/21 Fox News A- RV 801 Trump
41
Biden
49
+8% +6.6% -
4/13/20 4/6-4/8 Hart Research Associates B/C LV 303 Trump
41
Biden
50
+9% +7.6% -
4/3/20 3/30-4/1 Spry Strategies B/C LV 602 Trump
46.1
Biden
45.8
+0.3% +0.1% -
4/2/20 3/31-4/1 Public Policy Polling B V 1,019 Trump
45
Biden
48
+3% +2.6% -
3/27/20 3/12-3/16 Hodas & Associates LV 600 Trump
44.7
Biden
51.8
+7.2% +7.2% -
3/26/20 3/17-3/25 Baldwin Wallace University (Great Lakes Poll) C/D RV 997 Trump
42.2
Biden
47.3
+5.1% +4.3% -
3/25/20 3/16-3/20 Marketing Resource Group (MRG) B/C LV 600 Trump
41
Biden
44
+3% +2.6% -
3/9/20 3/7-3/9 AtlasIntel B/C RV 1,100 Trump
45.5
Biden
44.1
+1.4% +1.4% -
3/9/20 3/6-3/8 YouGov B RV 566 Trump
41
Biden
45
+4% +3.6% -
3/9/20 3/5-3/8 Monmouth University A+ RV 977 Trump
41
Biden
48
+7% +5.6% -
3/9/20 3/5-3/7 Firehouse Strategies/Øptimus B/C LV 550 Trump
46.5
Biden
44.3
+2.2% +0.7% -
3/7/20 2/6-2/18 Expedition Strategies RV 500 Trump
43
Biden
43
+0% +0% -
2/23/20 2/11-2/20 YouGov B RV 1,249 Trump
43
Biden
47
+4% +3.6% -
2/20/20 2/12-2/18 Quinnipiac University B+ RV 845 Trump
43
Biden
47
+4% +3.8% -
1/15/20 1/9-1/12 EPIC-MRA B+ LV 600 Trump
44
Biden
50
+6% +6.2% -
1/8/20 1/3-1/7 Glengariff Group B/C LV 600 Trump
43.2
Biden
50.1
+6.9% +6.5% -
12/9/19 12/3-12/5 Firehouse Strategies/Øptimus B/C LV 551 Trump
46.3
Biden
40.9
+5.4% +4% -
11/4/19 10/13-10/25 Siena College/The New York Times Upshot A+ LV 501 Trump
44.1
Biden
45.4
+1.3% +1.7% -
11/4/19 10/13-10/25 Siena College/The New York Times Upshot A+ RV 501 Trump
44.7
Biden
44.4
+0.2% +0.2% -
11/3/19 10/31-11/3 Emerson College A- RV 1,051 Trump
44.2
Biden
55.8
+11.6% +11.2% -
9/30/19 9/25-9/26 Target Insyght C/D LV 804 Trump
35
Biden
54
+19% +19.6% -
9/12/19 9/7-9/9 Firehouse Strategies/Øptimus B/C LV 529 Trump
41
Biden
42
+1% +2.4% -
8/28/19 8/17-8/21 EPIC-MRA B+ LV 600 Trump
41
Biden
51
+10% +10.2% -
7/29/19 7/14-7/17 Climate Nexus RV 820 Trump
36
Biden
49
+13% +13% -
6/18/19 6/11-6/13 Firehouse Strategies/Øptimus B/C LV 587 Trump
43
Biden
46
+3% +4.4% -
6/14/19 6/8-6/12 EPIC-MRA B+ LV 600 Trump
41
Biden
52
+11% +11.2% -
6/4/19 5/28-5/30 Glengariff Group B/C LV 600 Trump
41.4
Biden
53.3
+11.9% +11.5% -
6/4/19 5/28-5/30 Glengariff Group B/C LV 600 Trump
38.5
Biden
45.2
+6.7% +6.3% -
5/11/19 4/27-4/30 WPA Intelligence B/C LV 200 Trump
42
Biden
45
+3% +3.8% -
3/26/19 3/19-3/21 Firehouse Strategies/Øptimus B/C LV 530 Trump
46
Biden
45
+1% +0.4% -
3/10/19 3/7-3/10 Emerson College A- RV 743 Trump
44.3
Biden
51.8
+7.5% +7.1% -
3/10/19 3/7-3/10 Emerson College A- RV 743 Trump
46.3
Biden
53.7
+7.4% +7% -
1/29/19 1/24-1/26 Glengariff Group B/C LV 600 Trump
40.3
Biden
53.3
+13% +12.6% -


Past Results

Year Candidates Republican Democrat Diff
2016 Trump v Clinton 47.5 47.3 +0.2%
2012 Romney v Obama 44.7 54.2 +9.5%
2008 McCain v Obama 41 57.4 +16.5%
2004 Bush v Kerry 47.8 51.2 +3.4%
2000 Bush v Gore 46.2 51.3 +5.1%




Updates

Last Updated: 10/28 9:28 AM EDT
9/10
Michigan changed from Lean Biden to Likely Biden
6/25
Michigan polls jumped 1.6% toward Biden (was D+7.1%, now D+8.7%)
6/16
Michigan polls jumped 2.2% toward Biden (was D+6.7%, now D+8.9%)
6/7
Michigan changed from Toss Up to Lean Biden
6/6
Michigan changed from Lean Biden to Toss Up